(1) 理解主旨要义: 它要求我们对听到的内容有一个整体的把握和全面的领会, 理解说话者究竟在说什么。任何一段对话或独白都是围绕一个中心展开的, 有时主旨大意较明显, 有时则需要归纳和概括。
(2) 获取事实性的具体信息: 它要求我们听清、听懂与话题中心相关的具体信息, 准确理解具体细节,如时间、地点、人物、价钱、数量、目的、原因、结果等。同时, 还要求我们对所听到的信息进行简单的处理, 比如数字运算、时间排序、比较筛选、同义转换等。
(3) 对所听内容做出简单推断: 它要求我们从对话或独白的话题和语气中来推断出对话双方(或说话人)的职业或身份, 彼此之间(或与他人)的关系, 对话发生的时间、地点或场合等。
(4) 理解说话者的意图、观点或态度: 它要求我们从话语中听出“弦外之音”, 也就是揣摩说话人的意图、观点或态度。从最近几年高考试题分析可归纳以下几个考点:
考例 1: Where does the conversation most probably take place? (2008闽、苏、皖、赣卷)
A. In a restaurant. B. In an office. C. At home.
听力原文：W: OK, time to go home.
M: I can’t, because I haven’t finished the report about the newly opened restaurant.
W: Well, if you carry on working like that, you’ll make yourself ill.
解析: 根据对话中 “ time to go home. … I can’t, because I haven’t finished the report”就可以推断出是在办公室。
地点题选项一般由表示地点的名词或介词加这类名词组成。有些地点是对话中直接提到的, 有些是需要根据对话的内容来判断的, 还有的两者兼而有之。地点类常考的地点一般为机场、实验室、学校、商店、车站、图书馆、餐馆、医院、邮局等。常见的提问方式: 1. Where does this conversation probably take place? / 2. Where did it happen? / 3. Where is…? / 4. What kind of store is she going to?
关键词: Bank: account, cash, check, savings.
School: campus, dorm, grades, lecture, paper, exam, grades, playground, teacher.
Restaurant: menu, soup, drink, order, bill.
Airport / Station : train, time table, take off, passenger, flight.
Post office: parcel, package, stamp, postage, letter, airmail.
Hospital: cold, fever, pain, cough, trouble, temperature.
考例2: When will the two speakers leave if they get cheaper tickets? (2007湖南卷)
A. On Tuesday. B. On Thursday C. On Friday
听力原文：M: Those tickets on Tuesday are so expensive. Can’t you find anything better before Friday?
W: Well, if we want cheaper tickets, we have to leave on Thursday.
解析: 根据对话中 “we have to leave on Thursday” 就可以直接得出答案。
a. 根据表示时间的关联词来判断事件发生的时间,如: before, after, when, while, then, until, later, right away, immediately, as soon as possible等。
b. 掌握年、月、日、星期等时间的表达方法。注意一些表示时间的词, 如 quarter, a couple of days, eve, fortnight (two weeks), dawn (daybreak), dusk (time just before it gets quite back) 等。同时注意英、美不同的时间表达方式,如：2 : 15读作 a quarter past two(英)或 two fifteen（美）; 2：30读作 half past two (英) two thirty（美）等。
c. 有时候,文中通过从句或短语表示时间,而不出现具体表示时间的数字或表示时间概念的单词,这种情况也要引起注意。例如：“Aren’t you glad the term’s over?”可以判断出时间为“at the end of the term”。常见的提问方式有: 1. When does the conversation take place? / 2. When does the man want to leave? / 3. How long did it take the man to ….? / 4. When did the football match start?
关键词: ago, before, after, when, until, later, immediately, quarter, a couple of days, fortnight, decade, etc..
考例: Who is the woman most probably speaking to?
A. a railway porter B. a taxi driver C. a postal clerk
听力原文: W: Excuse me, sir. I’m going to send this parcel to London. What’s the postage for it?
M: Let me see. It’s one pound and fifty pence.
解析: 根据parcel (邮包) 和 postage(邮资) 等关键词可以判断, 这位女士是在跟一名邮局职员讲话。答案是C。
该题型经常提供一个情节，反映所涉及人物的关系或身份。在高考试题中, 常见的职业类型有:警察、医生、司机、工作人员、作家、经理、教师、学生等。常见的提问形式有: 1. What’s the woman’s job? / 2. What’s the profession of the man? / 3. Who is the woman most probably speaking to? / 4. Who is the speaker？ / 5. What is his / her job? / 6. What does he / she do?
关键词 Teacher / Student: class, exam, homework, part-time / full time job.
Salesman: price, on sale, try on.
Reporter: news, report.
Doctor / nurse: medicine, operation
考例: Why was Susan late for work? (2007全国卷I)
A. She missed the bus. B. Her train was late. C. Her car broke down.
听力原文：M: You are lucky. I was 10 minutes late.
W: What happened
M: All the buses came late.
W: What did Susan say?
M: She was late too.
W: What happened to her?
M: She took the train, and it was late too.
解析: 根据“She took the train, and it was late too.” 就可以可以直接得出答案。
因果关系类主要对原因进行提问, 常与文中表示原因的句子形成因果关系。因此要注意because, for, since, as, so that等引导的句子或短语。
考例: What are the speakers talking about? (2008闽、苏、皖、赣卷)
A. A way to improve air quality. B.A problem with traffic miles.
C. A suggestion for city planning.
听力原文：M: Air pollution is so bad in this city. I think the government should stop people from driving cars on certain days.
W: You have a point. Air pollution is a problem, but not letting people drive on certain days is a bad idea. People have to go to work by car.
M: I’m afraid I don’t agree with you there. Reducing air pollution is really important. People are so used to driving that they don’t think about ways to do things. If we stop them from driving on certain days, maybe they could think of new ways to get around.
W: I see your point, but I still think it wouldn’t be possible to stop people from driving.
解析: 该段对话是围绕一个中心 “I think the government should stop people from driving cars on certain days.”展开的。
对这种类型题, 抓住短文的前两句话往往特别重要, 因为前两句话往往是主题句, 即使不是主题句, 也对理解全文有重要的意义。例如: Last Friday，a storm to re through two villages in Fujian Province，14 people were killed. 这句话是一篇新闻的开头，很明显是主题句，介绍了新闻的中心内容，下面则应是对风暴情况的具体叙述。
这类试题要求我们对听到的内容有一个整体的把握和全面的领会, 抓住说话者究竟在说什么。任何一段对话或独白都是围绕一个中心展开的,有时主旨大意较明显, 有时则需要归纳、概括。常见的提问方式有: What are the speakers mainly discussing? / What’s the passage mainly about? / What’s the topic of the passage? / What are the two speakers doing? / What is the dialogue / conversation about?为了把握所听内容的主旨要义, 要从说话人的语气上体会主旨大意,抓住关键词, 对语段进行整体理解。而不应纠缠在某些小细节上, 这样往往会造成以偏概全。
考例: What can we infer from the conversation? (2008闽、苏、皖、赣卷)
A. Jane has just learned to drive. B. Jane’s car is in bad condition.
C. Mike will go to the airport.
听力原文: W: Listen, Mike, I’ve got a really problem.
M: What is it?
W: The car is broken down.
M: Oh, now again.
W: Yeah, I checked the oil, and I checked almost everything. I’t’s just not starting at all.
解析: 根据 “The car is broken down. I’t’s just not starting at all.”可以判断正确的答案。
考例: What does the man imply? (2007湖南卷)
A. He got help from the woman. B. He needed more time to study.
C. He worked hard for his composition.
听力原文: W: Congratulations! I heard that you did an excellent job on your composition.
M: Thanks. I've put a lot of time into it.
判断要通过两种途径实现: 一是充分利用各题仅有的5秒钟快速阅读选项, 这样一来，在听录音时就更容易抓住重点；二是对所给的信息进行判断分析。该类型题目要求应试者推测出某些细节的结果或对某些细节进行比较。在听的过程中尽快浏览各选择项,以便做出某些预测；运用常识猜测某个细节可能有的结果。常见的提问方式有: 1. What do we learn from the conversation? / 2. What does the conversation tell us? / 3. What is the man doing? / 4. What does the man mean? / 5. What happened to the woman? / 6. What can we conclude from the man’s reply?
考例: What is the probably relationship between the two speakers? (2007湖南卷)
A. Husband and wife B. Passenger and driver C. Salesgirl and customer
听力原文：W: Oh, my goodness. You must have left the book in a taxi. It’s a very good book, you know.
M: But I tell you I didn’t take it. I remember clearly. Did you put it in our bedroom? Er, yes, on your dressing table.
解析：此题考查对话人物身份。根据对话中“Did you put it in our bedroom?”中 “our”就可以推断出是“夫妻”之间的对话。
判断人物身份类试题必须根据说话人在特定情景中交谈时所使用的特定的语调及关键词才能作出正确选择。高考的听力对话不外乎下面几种情景：师生；师师；医生与病人；售货员与顾客；警察与司机；老板与职员；记者与被采访者；家长与儿女等。只要考生紧紧抓住相关的关键信息,这类题便能迎刃而解。常见的提问方式有: What is the person’s probable job? / Who are the speakers? / What is the relationship between the two speakers? / Who is the woman / man speaking to?2010届高考英语听力考点分析与对策：的相关文章